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Table 1 Contributions and potential limitations of members of the partnership model for a global mental health program

From: Partnerships in mental healthcare service delivery in low-resource settings: developing an innovative network in rural Nepal

Partner type Contributions Potential Limitations
Public Sector Institutions • Guarantor of health as a right for all citizens.
• Able to scale- up and sustain promising programs.
• Develop mental health policy.
• May avoid taking risks with new models needed to innovate in healthcare delivery.
• May lack capital investment needed for high quality services.
Non-Governmental Healthcare Delivery Organizations • Invest in innovative projects and take risks with new models.
• Clinical and community-based infrastructure allows for integration of mental health into general healthcare services.
• May lack specialized knowledge in vertical programs like mental healthcare.
• May harbor stigma against mental health.
Mental Health Organizations • Specialized focus on cross-cultural adaptation of psychiatric concepts, research scales, and protocols.
• Training of health workers.
• Advocacy for mental healthcare services.
• May lack local contextual and cultural perspectives of the specific intervention site.
• May not have a robust general healthcare delivery infrastructure.
Healthcare Service Users • Provide feedback and guidance for mental healthcare services.
• Advocate for quality services and human rights protections.
• Provide local accountability in settings of poor regulatory oversight of services.
• May have limited engagement due to societal stigma.
• May not have access to specialized, clinical knowledge.
• May lack agency to challenge such established institutions.
Bicultural Professionals • Provide contextual and culturally-relevant framework for interventions.
• Develop clinical protocols in the local language that synthesize evidence and local cultural considerations.
• May not have local presence to provide ongoing training and supervision.
Academic Medical Centers • Research infrastructure for implementation science, impact evaluation, and structured curriculum development.
• Training and mentorship.
• Support for principal investigators.
• Cross-disciplinary collaborations.
• Contextual expertise in healthcare delivery.
• May not have healthcare delivery systems to test interventions in community settings.
• May not have local expertise in community settings.