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Table 2 Market concentration in ultra-processed food categories in selected Asian markets, 2013 and change (%) since 2004

From: Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia

  Country Biscuits Carbonat. soft drinks Confectionary Oils & Fats Ready Meals Sweet & Sav. Snacks Packaged Food
CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%) CR4 2004-13 ∆ (%)
H-IC AUS 86.3 11.6 92.6 0.5 72.8 6.9 19.7 9.4 55.2 39.6 59.6 11.8 72.1 0.1
JPN 46.2 3.4 78.5 8.6 44.6 −2.2 19.5 9.9 58.2 11.8 81.6 0.3 41.4 24.8
KOR 92.8 2.7 96.8 6.0 66.4 −8.7 25.8 4.5 78.9 8.8 72.0 11.7 62.8 −6.4
NZL 87.0 0.6 90.0 1.2 76.4 13.0 40.7 17.9 81.7 62.8 48.0 3.5 63.6 1.5
SGP 66.0 13.6 95.4 5.6 42.1 21.7 22.3 2.3 61.0 5.2 54.8 −1.4 39.8 8.4
U-MIC CHN 30.2 23.3 95.3 2.4 31.4 139.7 20.9 34.8 71.0 13.4 70.1 85.5 29.4 57.2
MYS 60.3 22.3 95.2 3.3 52.0 30.7 24.0 −2.0 45.2 −9.4 64.1 2.0 38.3 11.3
THA 62.3 9.9 91.9 −3.4 50.6 26.2 17.9 2.3 56.7 −0.9 73.7 12.5 48.5 1.9
L-MIC IDN 61.8 36.4 97.9 4.0 54.1 30.4 62.8 9.2 85.8 5.4 91.5 2.3 46.9 10.9
IND 85.4 6.1 96.4 −1.1 71.6 9.8 25.0 −3.1 42.3 14.9 71.1 3.9 74.3 −2.0
PHL 76.4 16.3 98.3 7.5 55.4 31.0 20.7 1.5 76.9 1.1 82.4 6.6 57.5 2.3
VNM 59.7 24.1 90.3 0.9 61.7 20.7 31.6 6.4 66.4 5.7 70.9 44.7 34.3 14.7
  Average 67.9 14.2 93.2 3.0 56.6 26.6 27.6 7.8 64.9 13.2 70.0 15.3 50.7 10.4
  1. Footnotes: CR4 four firm concentration ratio, a measure of market power with higher values indicating more concentrated markets, H-IC high-income countries, U-MIC upper-middle income countries, L-MIC lower-middle income countries, Cabonat. Caronbated, Sav. Savoury, see Methods section for country abbreviations; data from [24]