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Table 1 Main antibiotic regulations and strategies in China

From: Addressing antimicrobial resistance in China: policy implementation in a complex context

Guidelines for antibiotic use in clinical practice, enacted in 2004 as the first national guidelines for the clinical application of antibacterial drugs, categorizing antibiotics as non-restricted, restricted, and special use, NHFPC, SATCM, HDGLM
• Measures to forbid retail pharmacies from selling antibiotics without prescriptions, 2004, CFDA
Notice on establishing a surveillance net for the clinical application of antibacterial drugs and Mohnarin, 2005, NHFPC, SATCM, HDGLM
Notice on further strengthening the management of the clinical application of antibacterial drugs, 2008, the General Office of NHFPC
Notice on the management of the clinical application of antibacterial drugs, 2009, the General Office of NHFPC
• National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP), 2009, the State Council of China. Advocating prioritizing the use of essential medicines and canceling the 15 % mark-up policy in all government-owned primary healthcare(PHC) facilities by the end of 2011.
• Measures for the Management of the Clinical Application of Antibacterial Drugs, 2012, NHFPC
• Three year national special campaign on the clinical application of antibacterial drugs, 2011-2013, NHFPC
• National education program of “66 Items Related to Citizen’s Health Literacy in China”, viewed as a program that every citizen should know basic health information, 2008(revised in 2015), NHFPC
• Health China Propaganda Program, 2013, NHDPC, CFDA and CAST
Source: government documents
 NHFPC -the National Health and Family Planning Commission
 SATCM -the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine
 HDGLM-the Health Department of General Logistic Minister
 CAST -the China Association for Science and Technology
 CFDA-the China Food and Drug Administration
 Mohnarin- Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Net