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Table 2 Text Message Usage and Barriers to Mobile Phone Use Among Mobile Phone Owners

From: A study of mobile phone use among patients with noncommunicable diseases in La Paz, Bolivia: implications for mHealth research and development

   Text Message Usage Barriers to Mobile Phone Use
  Total Sends or Receives at least once a week Frequently or Always Lacks Mobile Signal Frequently or Always Lacks Mobile Phone Credit
  % (n) % p-value§ % p-value§ % p-value§
Total 100 (452) 58.0   9.1*   16.5**  
Demographics        
Age    <0.01°   0.10°   <0.01
 18–29 11.1 (50) 94.0   10.0   32.7  
 30–49 35.2 (159) 74.2   11.3   18.9  
 50–64 36.1 (163) 44.2   9.9   14.2  
 65+ 17.7 (80) 31.3   2.5   6.3  
Gender    0.06   0.76   0.12
 Male 39.2 (177) 52.5   9.6   13.1  
 Female 60.8 (275) 61.5   8.8   18.7  
Indigenous language used at home    <0.01   0.18   0.38
 Yes 28.5 (129) 44.2   6.2   14.1  
 No 71.5 (323) 63.5   10.3   17.5  
Health Literacya    <0.01   0.65   0.46
 Low 25.0 (113) 38.1   8.0   18.8  
 High 75.0 (339) 64.6   9.4   15.7  
Education in years    <0.01   0.01   0.29
 ≤6 26.8 (121) 29.8   6.7   18.3  
 7–12 39.2 (177) 56.5   5.7   17.6  
 >12 34.1 (154) 81.8   14.9   13.7  
Health Status        
Self-Reported Health    0.01   0.19   0.84
 G./V.G./Exc.b 32.5 (147) 67.4   11.6   16.0  
 Poor or fair 67.5 (305) 53.4   7.9   16.7  
Number of Self-Reported Chronic Conditions    <0.01   0.61   0.20
 0 26.1 (118) 78.8   10.2   13.7  
 1 34.3 (155) 54.8   9.0   15.5  
 ≥2 39.6 (179) 46.9   8.4   19.2  
Depressedc    0.19   0.26   0.09
 Yes 45.4 (205) 54.6   10.8   19.8  
 No 54.7 (247) 60.7   7.7   13.8  
Health Care Access        
Cost-related access barrierd    0.81   0.86   0.03
 Yes 45.1 (204) 57.4   9.4   20.7  
 No 54.9 (248) 58.5   8.9   13.0  
Travel time to clinic in minutes    <0.01   0.69   0.01
 0–29 39.6 (179) 69.8   8.9   12.4  
 30–59 35.0 (158) 52.5   8.2   15.4  
 ≥60 25.4 (115) 47.0   10.5   24.4  
  1. All percentages are row-percentages. §Result of Pearson Chi-squared Test for binary predictors, result of Cochran-Armitage test of trend for variables with more than two levels;*One missing record; **Two missing records; °Result of Fisher’s Exact test for small cell sizes; aDefined as not being able to read, frequently or always needing someone to help read papers from health center, frequently or always having problems understanding written medical instructions; bGood/Very Good/Excellent; cAs measured by a score of 3 or more on the PHQ-2 questionnaire; d“In the past year, did cost keep you from going to a clinic or hospital?”