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Table 5 Outcomes

From: Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review

Estimate Study year Sample frame and sample size Study design Reference
DMT2
HbA1c 68% patients >7% 81% patients >6.5% Nov 2008 - Feb 2009 Sample frame: 18 diabetes centres Cross-sectional study, blood samples DiabCare 2008 [26]
FPG 47% patients >7.2 mmol/l 69% patients >6.1 mmol/l Sample size: 1832 participants (1785 DM T2, 17 DM T1)
47-69% of the surveyed patients depending on the criteria applied (IDF/ADA or APDPG)
HbA1c: 69% patients >7% 2006 - 2007 Sample frame: Patients with type 2 diabetes Multi-centre, cross-sectional, observational study. IDMPS [18]
Sample size: N = 674, mean age 55.2 (SD = 10.2), 55% females, mean duration for diabetes 6.1 (SD = 6.4) years.
Prevalence-based approach to estimate resource use occurred during a 1-year period.
Mean ± SD HbA1c 8.1 ± 2 (N = 1932) Mar - Dec 1998 Sample frame: several diabetes centres with more than 100 diabetic patients a month Cross-sectional survey DiabCare 1998 [39]
Categories by central HbA1c values (%)
<7: 34% Sample size: N = 1932
7-8: 25%
>8: 41%
Local mean ± SD HbA1c 7.7 ± 2.6 (N = 144)
DMT1
HbA1c: 10.5+/-2.7 (mean +/- SD) Nov 2001 - Apr 2002 Sample frame: Seven diabetes centres Cross-sectional clinic-based survey [21]
Sample size: 64 DM type 1 patients (45% boys, 55%, girls), mean age 11
HbA1c: Apr - Jun 1999 Sample frame: Children with type 1 diabetes at the Paediatric Endocrinology Clinic of the University of Indonesia. Cross-sectional survey [41]
46% patients ≤ 10
54% patients ≥ 10
Sample size: N = 24 children mean age 13.6 years old 10 boys, 14 girls.
Annual checks for complications and glucose monitoring
DMT2
Frequency of eye examination among known diabetic patients in the last year: 15.3%, n = 30, N = 196 Feb - Apr 2009 Sample frame: One tertiary hospital and two community clinics in Jakarta   [40]
Sample size: N = 196, mean age 58.4 years, 61.5% females.
Percentage screened for 2006 - 2007 Sample frame: Patients with type 2 diabetes Multi-centre, cross-sectional, observational study IDMPS [18]
-Micro-vascular complications: 56% Sample size: N = 674, > 18 years with average age 55.2 (SD = 10.2), 55% females, mean duration for diabetes 6.1 (SD = 6.4) years.
Prevalence-based approach to estimate resource use occurred during a 1-year period.
-Macro-vascular complications: 49%
Home blood glucose monitoring 57.1% 2003 Sample frame: Patients with type 2 diabetes Clinic-based survey [36]
Four or more clinic visits in the previous year: 57.2% Sample size: N = 7, 42.9% male, aged <18 years
≥ 3 HbA1c test in the previous year: 16.7%
DMT1
No HbA1c test in the previous year: 37% Nov 2001-Apr 2002 Sample frame: Seven diabetes centres Cross-sectional clinic-based survey [21]
More than three HbA1c test in the previous year: 21% Sample size: 64 DM type 1 patients (45% boys, 55%, girls), mean age 11
Blood glucose self-monitoring was performed on average 32 times a month
  1. Notes: Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), standard deviation (SD).