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Table 4 Complications of the renal system

From: Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review

Estimate Study year Sample frame and sample Study design Diagnostic test and diagnostic criteria Reference
Diabetic nephropathy
7.3%, n = 131, N = 1785 Nov 2008 - Feb 2009 Sample frame: 18 diabetes centres, nationally representative Cross-sectional study Blood samples [26]
Sample: 1785 DM T2 patients, > = 15 years old
19.2%, n = 58, N = 302 Year: NA Sample frame: Diabetes clinic in Surabaya Retrospective review of medical records over one year   [28]
Sample: 302 T2DM patients, 132 males and 170 female, mean age of 55.9 ± 21.1 years
Overt nephropathy 11% Incipient nephropathy 26% 2003 Sample frame: Tertiary care hospital, Outpatient Endocrinology Clinic Cross sectional study   [30]
Sample: 100 consecutive sampling, mean age 54 (SD 9.6) years old, 42% male 58% female
Overt nephropathy 8% Incipient nephropathy 25% 2002 Sample frame: Primary health care, Jakarta (Urban Area) Cross sectional study [27]
Sample: NA, 30–60 years old
Chronic kidney disease
Prevalence of decreased glomeral filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min) in newly diagnosed patients with type-2 DM: Jan 2003-Dec 2006 Sample frame: Outpatient Endocrinology clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital Retrospective study   [25]
Sample: 1283 new diagnosed DM type 2 patients
Cockroft-Gault (CG) All ages: 36.1% ≥ 60 years old: 54.1%
Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) All ages: 13.2% ≥ 60 years old: 19.3%
CG-adjusted to body surface (BSA)
All ages: 43.7%
≥ 60 years old: 63%
Chinese adapted MDRD (C-MDRD) All ages: 22.8%
Creatinine > 2 mg/ml (abnormal level in Indonesia) All ages: 5.8% ≥ 60 years old: 7.5%
Prevalence of decreased glomeral filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min) patients with type-2 DM: 2002 Sample frame: Primary health care, Jakarta (Urban Area) Cross sectional study   [27]
Sample: NA, 30–60 years old
30.7% (n = 16, N = 52) Albuminuria: 33%
Prevalence of decreased glomeral filtration rate Year: NA Sample frame: Four urban and semi-urban areas: Yogyakarta, Jakarta, Surabaya and Bali Cross-sectional survey   [32]
Cockroft-Gault: GFR ≥ 60 ml/min 87.5% (n = 1310) GFR < 60 ml/min 12.5% (n = 187)
Sample: 9412 (64.1% females). Note: From Prodjosudjadi et al. 2009 it is not clear which sub-sample was used to estimate the glomeral filtration rate.
MDRD
GFR ≥ 60 ml/min 91.4% (n = 1370)
GFR < 60 ml/min 8.6% (n = 129)
C-MDRD GFR ≥ 60 ml/min 92.5% (n = 1386) GFR < 60 ml/min 7.5% (n = 133)
Prevalence of: May-October 2002 Sample frame: three medical centres (outpatient)    [29]
-albuminuria: 77.7%
-macro-albuminuria: 44.7% (41.2-48.1, 95% CI)
-micro-albuminuria: 33% (29.7-36.3, 95% CI) Sample: 207 patients aged 18 years and older, with hypertension and DMT2
Incidence of renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease in Indonesia was 14.5 (n = 2149) and 30.7 (n = 4656) per million population in 2002 and 2006 respectively. 2002-2006 Sample frame: 13 nephrology centres in public and private hospitals Retrospective study   [22]
Sample: Total number of patients on renal replacement therapy (either haemodyalisis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or renal transplant)
Prevalence of renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease in Indonesia was 10.2 (n = 1517) and 23.4 (n = 3549) in 2002 and 2006 respectively.
Complications in children with DM type 1 Nov 2001 - April 2002 Sample frame: Seven diabetes centres Cross-sectional clinic-based survey   [21]
Hypoglycaemia (Events per 100 patient-years, rate (95% CI)): 76.2 (3.4 to 149) Sample: 64 DM type 1 patients (45% boys, 55%, girls), mean age 11
Diabetic ketoacidosis: 20.3 (9.5 to 31.2)
Microalbuminuria (n,%): 3 (4.7)
Hypertension (%) 31.7
  1. Notes: Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockroft-Gault (CG).