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Table 3 Complications of the vascular system

From: Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review

Estimate Study year Sample frame and sample Study design Diagnostic test and diagnostic criteria Reference
Diabetic retinopathy
42.6%, n = 760, N = 1785 Nov 2008 - Feb 2009 Sample frame: 18 diabetes centres, nationally representative Cross-sectional study Blood samples [26]
Sample: 1785 DM T2 patients, ≥ 15 years old
17.2%, n = 52, N = 302 Year: NA Sample frame: Diabetes clinic in Surabaya Retrospective review of medical records over one year   [28]
Sample: 302 T2DM patients, 132 males and 170 female, mean age of 55.9 ± 21.1 years
28% 2002 Sample frame: Primary health care, Jakarta (Urban Area) Cross sectional study   [27]
Sample: NA, 30–60 years old
Diabetic neuropathy
63.5%, n = 1133, N = 1785 Nov 2008 - Feb 2009 Sample frame: 18 diabetes centres, nationally representative Cross-sectional study Blood samples [26]
Sample: 1785 DM T2 patients, > = 15 years old
58.6%, n = 177, N = 302 Year: NA Sample frame: Diabetes clinic in Surabaya Retrospective review of medical records over one year   [28]
Sample: 302 T2DM patients, 132 males and 170 female, mean age of 55.9 ± 21.1 years
70% in malnutrition-related diabetes, n = 7, n = 10 Study period: NA Sample frame: Dr. Sutomo Hospital, Surabaya Cross-sectional   [31]
Sample: 27 diabetic patients between 22 and 55 years old
78% in non-insulin-dependent diabetes, n = 7,
N = 9 13% in insulin-dependent diabetes, n = 1, N = 8
Vascular complications
Macrovascular 16%, n = 285; microvascular 27.6%, n = 493; N = 1785 Nov 2008 - Feb 2009 Sample frame: 18 diabetes centres, nationally representative Cross-sectional study Blood samples [26]
Sample: 1785 DM T2 patients, > = 15 years old
Macrovascular 20% microvascular 53% 2006 - 2007 Sample frame: Patients with type 2 diabetes Multi-centre, cross-sectional, observational study. Prevalence-based approach to estimate resource use occurred during a 1-year period. [18]
Sample: N = 674, mean age 55.2 (SD = 10.2), 55% females, mean duration for diabetes 6.1 (SD = 6.4) years.
Diabetic foot 7.3%, n = 22, N = 302 Year: NA Sample frame: Diabetes clinic in Surabaya Retrospective review of medical records over one year   [28]
Sample: 302 T2DM patients, 132 males and 170 female, mean age of 55.9 ± 21.1 years
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) DM type 2 patients Year: NA Sample frame: 14 hospitals in Indonesia
DM type 2 diabetes patients, aged 50 and older with one or more of the following risk factors: on smoking or with history of smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia
  Blood pressure measurement at upper arms and ankles to obtain the ankle-brachial index (ABI) [23]
13,807 PAD patients per 100,000 patients
PAD was defined as an ABI value lower than 0.9. Sample: 464 males and 521 females
Prevalence of diabetic foot according to Wagner’s classification 1999 - 2004 Sample frame: Koja Regional General Hospital Jakarta Retrospective analysis of medical records.   [24]
Degree 0 (high risk-foot with no ulcer) 71.6% (n = 202) Sample: Diabetic patients, inpatient and outpatient, with diabetic foot
Degree 1 (superficial ulcer) 1.8% (n = 5)
Degree 2 (deep ulcer with no bone involvement or abscess formation) 2.5% (n = 7)
Degree 3 (deep ulcer with cellulitis or abscess formation) 3.9% (n = 11)
Degree 4 (localised gangrene) 6.7% (n = 19)
Degree 5 (extended gangrene involving the whole foot) 13.5% (n = 38)
As many as 15% of diabetic patients will suffer from ulcer in their lifetime, and will 12-24% undergo amputation. 2007 Sample frame: Tertiary Care Hospital Retrospective study   (unpublished observationsi)
Sample: Sequential sampling of all diabetic patients hospitalised in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital