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Table 2 Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

From: Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review

Prevalence of DM
Estimate Study year Sampling frame and sample Study design Diagnostic test and diagnostic criteria Reference
19.6%, men 21.9%, women 18.2%, n = 97, N = 495 2008 Sampling frame: Suburban population of Ternate, a small remote island in Eastern Indonesia Cross-sectional survey Diagnostic test: FPG [12]
Peak age group was 50–59 years old, followed by 40–49 years old, and 60–69 years old Sample: 495 individuals, 187 (37.8%) men and 308 (62.2%) women, 20–84 years old Criteria: ADA 1997 FBG (>126 mg/dl)
5.7%, 1.5% diagnosed, 4.2% undiagnosed 6.4% women, 4.9% men Riskesdas 2007 Sampling frame: 33 provinces, urban areas Cross-sectional survey Diagnostic test: FPG and OGTT [11, 16]
Sample: 24,417 urban residents, >15 years old and not pregnant   Criteria: WHO 1999 and ADA 2003 (> = 200 mg/dl)
1.7% (1982),
5.7% (1993), 12.8% (2001) in Jakarta1.5% (NA), 5.4% (NA) in Ujung Pandang, 6.1% in Mandado (1980s), 1.5% Bali (NA) East Java rural and urban areas, 1.47% (NA)
1980s, 1982, 1983, 1995, 2001 Sampling frame: Various urban and rural areas NA Diagnostic test: NA Data from local unpublished studies, results reported in [14, 48] and unpublished observations from Soebardi 2011
Sample: NA   Criteria: NA
Rural area of Ende, found a much lower prevalence of 1.56% (NA)
Asymptomatic cases of diabetes 1997 population screening, 2000 clinical screening Sampling frame: A group of government employees and retired military officers Population screening and clinical screening Diagnostic test: Population screening with OGTT. Clinical screening with FBG and OGTT [9]
Population screening: 5.42%, n = 51 both sexes 7.42%, n = 21 women 4.6%, n = 30 men
Sample: Population screening: 941 (290 women, 651 men), clinical screening: 907 (483 women, 424 men) Criteria: WHO 1999 criteria
Clinical screening: 17.08%, n = 155 both sexes, 16.14%, n = 78 women, 18.16%, n = 77 men
1.63%, n = 44, N = 2,704, 18 (40%) had previously been diagnosed but only 50% of them were on treatment, 1.8%, n = 23 men, 1.5%, n = 21 women Study year: December 1981-June 1982 Sampling frame: Koja Utara subdistrict, Tanjungpriok, Northern Jakarta NA Diagnostic test: OGTT [15]
Criteria: WHO 1980 criteria
Sample: 2,704, > = 15
Peak age was 55–64 for both men and women
0.2% (Semarang), 0.26% (Surabaya) Study year: 1974, 1977, 1973-1977 Sampling frames: Cities of Semarang (1974), Surabaya (1977), one clinic (1973–1977) NA Diagnostic test: NA Criteria: NA Review of previous study plus data from the authors’ clinic [13]
28 patients with insulin-dependent DM
Sample: 6–20 years old (Semarang, Surubaya), all children who attended the clinic between 1973–1988 aged between 1–15 years old (clinic)
  1. Notes: OGTT: Oral-glucose tolerance test; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose.