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Table 2 Key elements of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel

From: Empirical impact evaluation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in Australia, Canada, UK and USA

Goal Specific elements
Establish ethical framework Establishes ethical framework for international health worker recruitment based on voluntary principles
Balance rights Balances the rights, obligations and expectations of source and destination countries and health workers
Strengthen health systems High-income countries should support health systems strengthening through voluntary financial means, and provide technical assistance, training, technological and skill transfer and promote circular migration to create a net positive effect on low-income source countries
Support domestic development Prioritizes the development of domestic health personnel and managing the mal-distribution of health workers between rural and urban areas
Facilitate information exchange Calls for the creation of bilateral agreements, a national database of laws and regulations, designation of a national authority responsible for exchanging information with the WHO Secretariat and research partnerships at national, sub-national, and international levels
Develop regulatory framework Supports capacity building for health information systems, continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health labour market and the development of a regulatory framework for health worker retention
Encourage compliance Urges that the Code’s contents be publicized among all stakeholders involved in health worker migration and that governments only interact with recruitment agencies that operate in compliance with the Code
Enhance training Recommends that training in source countries match the disease profile of such countries, encourages the twinning of health facilities, and demands that access to specialized training and technology be made a priority