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Table 1 Summary of “Push” and “Pull” factors on the migration of health workers

From: Empirical impact evaluation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in Australia, Canada, UK and USA

Push factors encouraging emigration from source countries • Poor remuneration [115]
• Concerns for personal safety [1, 2, 4, 5, 12, 13]
• Few career prospects and opportunities for promotion [1, 48, 1215]
• Poor working conditions and heavy workload [1, 410, 1215]
• Poor living conditions [1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 12, 14]
Pull factors encouraging immigration to destination countries • Better remuneration [13, 57, 915]
• Safer environment [1, 2, 4, 5, 12]
• Professional development and career advancement opportunities [1, 48, 12, 14, 15]
• Improved working conditions and facilities [1, 410, 12, 14, 15]
• Higher standards of living [2, 5, 6, 8, 12, 14]