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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Rural and urban differences in blood pressure and pregnancy-induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ghana

  Urban (n=290) Rural (n=677)  
    p-value
Age (mean and SD) 27.8 (5.3) 27.3 (6.0) 0.281
Parity n (%)    <0.001
  0 104 (35.9) 142 (21.0)  
  1 - 4 181 (62.4) 425 (62.8)  
  >=5 5 (1.7) 110 (16.2)  
Educational level n (%)    <0.001
None or primary school 45 (15.5) 214 (31.6)  
Junior secondary school/Middle school 118 (40.7) 221 (32.6)  
Senior secondary school or higher 125 (43.1) 129 (19.0)  
Unknown 2 (0.7) 113 (16.7)  
Profession ion n (%)    <0.001
Domestic worker/farmer/labourer 9 (3.1) 174 (25.7)  
Seamstress/hairdresser/trader/food seller 163 (56.2) 332 (49.0)  
Teacher/nurse/accounts/administrative/clerical/secretarial 64 (22.1) 10 (1.5)  
Other 24 (8.3) 2 (0.3)  
Unknown 2 (0.7) 159 (23.5)  
None 28 (9.7) 0 (0.0)  
BMI (kg/m2) 28.0 (4.8) 25.8 (4.0) < 0.001
  BMI categories n (%):    < 0.001
  BMI <18.5 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)  
  BMI 18.5 - < 25 84 (29.0) 327 (48.3)  
  BMI 25 - < 30 123 (42.2) 252 (37.2)  
  BMI >30 83 (28.6) 91 (13.4)  
Unknown 0 (0.0) 5 (0.7)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 104.8 (12.8) 101.9 (10.9) <0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 66.0 (9.6) 61.1 (7.7) <0.001
Pulse rate 93.4 (11.8) 91.1 (11.9) 0.130
Smoking n (%)    0.538
  Yes 1 (0.3) 1 (0.2)  
  No 289 (99.7) 674 (99.6)  
  Unknown 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2)  
Alcohol consumption n (%)    0.506
  Yes 5 (1.7) 8 (1.2)  
  No 285 (98.3) 667 (98.5)  
  Unknown 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)  
  1. Values are mean (SD) or n (%). BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure.