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Table 1 Global Health Delivery HIV case, VMMC case studies*

From: From scaling up to sustainability in HIV: potential lessons for moving forward

Case title Region Primary sector Type of scale-up Storyline
Treating HIV in Kenya: the Academic Model for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS (AMPATH) East Africa Private Quantitative, functional Academic partnership between Indiana U. and Kenyan U. leads to primary care and soon large-scale HIV/AIDS treatment in Kenya.
The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) of Uganda East Africa Private Quantitative HIV/AIDS support organization in Uganda scales up, offers treatment, and quickly expands number of sites/clinics offering services at the request of the government.
Botswana’s Program for Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Southern Africa Public Quantitative Botswana implements a national PMTCT program and finds unforeseen challenges.
Iran's Triangular Clinic Middle East Public Quantitative An innovative HIV/AIDS harm reduction clinic in Kermanshah Province, Iran, overcomes cultural hurdles to offer support, prevention, and treatment and is replicated in prisons before being scaled up nationally.
HIV in Thailand: The 100% Condom Program Southeast Asia Public Quantitative, political A regional Ministry of Health director implements a policy mandating that commercial sex workers use condoms and gets all regional stakeholders on board before considering scale-up.
HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in Hinche, Haiti Caribbean Private Quantitative A nongovernmental organization (NGO) offering health care in one area of Haiti is asked to help rejuvenate voluntary counseling and services at a poorly functioning government site in another area of the country.
HIV Care in Rwanda East Africa Private Quantitative, functional The Rwandan Ministry of Health invites an NGO to assume responsibility for health care services and create an HIV program in two districts before considering national scale-up.
HIV/AIDS in Brazil: Delivering Prevention in a Decentralized Health System South America Public Quantitative, political Brazil scales up its response to HIV via a human rights framework, cooperating with civil society.
loveLife**: Preventing HIV Among South African Youth Southern Africa Private Quantitative, organizational The NGO loveLife scales up over time to prevent HIV among South African youth before losing one-third of its operating budget.
loveLife**: Transitions After 2005 Southern Africa Private Organizational loveLife managers downsize and secure additional government funding to sustain the NGO.
The Avahan India AIDS Initiative: Managing Targeted HIV Prevention at Scale South Asia Private Quantitative, political The Avahan Indian AIDS Initiative (Avahan), an HIV prevention delivery program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, implements large-scale intervention strategies using a noteworthy structure, execution style, and management system.
HIV Prevention in Maharashtra, India South Asia Private Quantitative, functional, organizational Muslim Samaj Prabodhan Va Shikshan Sanstha (MSPSS), a grantee NGO with funding from Avahan, delivers high-value, comprehensive HIV preventive services to a high-risk population and must determine how to preserve the value of the program as it prepares to transition the program to government ownership.
  1. *The full cases are available via
  2. **loveLife program was covered in two cases but analyzed as one for the purposes of this paper.