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Table 1 Effect of rising petroleum prices on the functioning of health systems in LMICs

From: Localization of health systems in low- and middle-income countries in response to long-term increases in energy prices

  Effects of rising petroleum prices
1. Health infrastructure, supplies, & equipment • Increased cost of petroleum-based medical supplies and equipment (e.g. rubber gloves, syringes, pharmaceuticals)
• Increased cost of transporting construction materials, equipment, and other commodities to remote parts of the health system
2. Transportation and referral system • Disruptions to medical supply chains
• Increased fuel costs for transporting health workers and administrators
• Challenges to referral systems as patient transportation becomes more costly
3. Energy for health services • Disruption to fossil fuel-dependent health facility operations (e.g. heating/cooling, powering medical equipment, lighting)
4. Human resources policy • Personnel shortages in rural areas and increased absenteeism
• Increased costs of supervisory visits to remote areas
5. Health systems organization • Centralized health systems increasingly inaccessible to rural or remote populations
  • Less effective administrative and personnel supervision in peripheral areas