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Table 4 Health and social exclusion indicators

From: Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

  Categories/Communities Metropolitan Rural Semi urban Typically farming Typically fishing
  Health Seeking Behavior
Health Seeking Behavior a. Very poor a. Cannot afford transport cost to health center a. Use herbs to treat sickness a. Cannot meet medical expenses-use herbs a. Uses leaves and plants from the forest to cure sickness a. Cures himself with herbs from nearby bushes
b. Poor b. Self-medication b. Use herbs to treat sickness b. Cannot meet medical expenses and transport cost to hospital b. Buys pain killers from drug stores; seek help from traditional healers b. Buys medicine from chemical sellers
c. Middle class c. Able to meet out- patient medical expenses c. Able to meet out-patient medical expenses c. Able to meet out-patient medical expenses c. Attends hospitals and private clinics c. Able to attend hospital or nearby health centers
d. Rich d. Able to afford health care cost d. Able to afford health care cost d. Able to afford medical cost for entire family d. Goes for regular medical checkups, attends private hospitals d. Sometimes have personal doctors to attend to their health needs
e. Very rich e. Visits the hospital when sick and able to pay medical bills e. Visit the hospital and able to meet medical bills e. Able to afford health care cost for family e. Have special doctors to attend to their needs e. Usually goes for regular medical check-ups
  Social Exclusion and Marginalization
Social exclusion and Marginalization a. Very poor a. People pay less attention to their needs and opinions a. Humiliated in the open especially if they are unable to repay their debtors a. They are laughed at and teased by children; their views are taken for granted a. Excluded from family/social gatherings and meetings a. They are considered outcast and not given any recognition within the community
b. Poor b. They are publicly insulted and laughed at by adults and children b. Children are given severe punishment than their non-poor counterparts at school b. Teachers do not give children from poor households enough attention compared to non poor children b. Invited to social gatherings but views are not considered important b. Usually laughed at because of their appearance
c. Middle class c. Their opinions are generally accepted and respected c. They are not disregarded nor laughed at in public c. Their views are usually accepted as the general rule within the community c. Always part of meetings and sometimes serve as the voice gap between the rich and poor c. Their views are respected as they are able to speak in favor of the poor sometimes
d. Rich d. Their views are always accepted and they command a lot of respect d. They are respected and sometimes treated as chiefs d. They receive many accolades especially during the Muslim festivals d. Usually consulted before decisions are taken in the family/community d. They coordinate social gatherings and have authority to veto decisions
  e. Very rich e. They are highly respected, their opinions on decisions are regarded as final e. Wherever they go, they are accorded the necessary attention and audience e. They receive similar treatment and respect as their rich counterparts e. They command respect and given high positions at church and other social gatherings e. Highly respected members of the community