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Table 3 Prevalence of diabetes complications in Thailand

From: Diabetes management in Thailand: a literature review of the burden, costs, and outcomes

Estimate Summary of the main features of the study Reference
Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR)   
15.1% DR, 11.6% non-proliferative, 3.5% proliferative DR Study year: March-October 2007 [53]
Setting: 13 primary care units in urban areas
Sample and study design: Cross-sectional study, ADA criteria
287 diabetic patients (79 males, 208 females)
31.2% (n = 86), 25% (n = 69) non proliferative and 6.2% (n = 17) proliferative DR Study year: 1 Jan-31 Dec 2006 [49]
Setting:1 tertiary hospital, out-patient department
Sample and study design: 722 diabetes patients. Retrospective records review of DMT2 patients
31.4% (n = 2105), 22% (n = 1475) non-proliferative and 9.4% (n = 630) proliferative DR Study year: April-December 2003 [50]
Setting: 11 tertiary diabetes centres
Sample and study design: 6,707 diabetes Type 2 patients (4,434 females, 2,273 males). Cross-sectional, hospital based study. Thailand diabetes registry project
DMT2 and DMT1 Study year: April-December 2003 [13]
30.7% (n = 2187), 21.3% (n-1516) non-proliferative,9.4% (n = 671) proliferative Setting: 11 tertiary care medical centres
  Sample and study design: 9,419 diabetes patients, 65.9% females, 94.6% DMT2, 4.5% DMT1, 0.1% MODY. Cross-sectional, hospital based study. Thailand diabetes registry project
DMT1 Study year: April-December 2003 [63]
21.6% (n = 75), 10.9% (n = 38) non-proliferative and 10.7% (n = 27) proliferative DR Setting: 11 tertiary diabetes centres
  Sample and study design: 347 diabetes Type 1 patients (215 females, 132 males). Cross-sectional study of diabetes patients in 11 hospitals. Thailand diabetes registry project.
22% (n = 667), 19% (n = 576) non-proliferative DR, 3% (n = 91) proliferative DR Study year: January-December 2002 [65]
Setting: All community hospital in Lampang province
Sample and study design: 3,049 diabetes patients (838 males, 2,211 females). Cross-sectional study in hospitals
13.6% DR Study year: 2001 [15]
Setting: 8 provincial hospitals plus 4-5 district hospitals providing primary health care services in each province. Total number of sites: 37
Sample and study design: 1,078 diabetes patients (300 males, 778 females). Cross-sectional study
Comprehensive eye examination: Study year: NA [69]
19.2% non-proliferative, 1.1% proliferative for the right eye, 18.5% non-proliferative, 1.3% proliferative for the left eye Setting: Trang provincial hospital
Photography: Sample and study design: 714 diabetes patients. Cross-sectional, hospital based study
23.8% NDR, 1.4% PDR for the right eye, 22.6% NDR, 1.3% PDR for the left eye   
Diabetic nephropathy (DN)   
DN without DR Study year: January 2007-September 2008 [68]
62.8% normo-albuminuria, 26% micro-albuminuria, 11.2% macro-albuminuria Setting: 7 public hospitals: Bangkok (3), Nakhonpathom (1), Prathumthani (1), Prathumthani (1), and Prathumthani (1)
DN and DR Sample and study design: 877 patients with diabetes Type 2 (ADA criteria), collection of urine samples. Cross-sectional study in the out-patient department of seven public hospitals
18.5% normo-albuminuria, 35.5% micro-albuminuria, 48% macro-albuminuria  
Microalbuminuria 28.7%, macroalbuminuria 5.7%, 85% of them were non-DR and 15% DN and DR including 8% with both DN and DR Study year: March-October 2007 [53]
Setting: 13 primary care units in urban areas
Sample and study design: 287 diabetes patients, 79 males, 208 females. Cross-sectional study, ADA criteria
Prevalence of DN 48.3% (Type 1) and 31.8% (Type 2) Study year: April-December 2003 [67]
Setting: 11 tertiary diabetes centres
Sample and study design: Children and adolescents diabetes, 58 Type 1 and 22 Type 2, were screened for nephropathy. Cross-sectional study. Thailand diabetes registry project
Prevalence of DN was 42.9%: 19.7% micro-albuminuria, 23.2% overt nephropathy. Study year: April-December 2003 [73]
Setting: 11 tertiary centres
Sample and study design: 4,875 diabetes patients, 63.8% females. Cross-sectional study, hospital based study. Thailand diabetes registry project
Prevalence of DN 17% Study year: 2001 [15]
Setting: 8 provincial hospitals plus 4-5 district hospitals providing primary health care services in each province. Total number of sites: 37
  Sample and study design: 1,078 diabetes patients (300 males, 778 females). Cross-sectional study  
Vascular complications   
Previous history of any lower extremity amputation: 0.9% right foot lesion, 0.6% left foot lesion Study year: Aug 2005-March 2007 [74]
Diminished or absent pedal pulses 7.4% right foot lesion, 7.7% left foot lesion Setting: Diabetic clinic in a university hospital in Northern Thailand
Low-risk ulcerative foot 3.7% Sample and study design: 438 diabetic patients. Baseline data of patients attending the clinic were collected
High-risk ulcerative foot 0.2%  
1.2% acute foot ulcer/gangrene, 6.9% healed foot ulcer Study year: 2001 [15]
1.9% stroke, 0.7% myocardial infarction Setting: 8 provincial hospitals plus 4-5 district hospitals providing primary health care services in each province. Total number of sites: 37
  Sample and study design: 1,078 diabetes patients (300 males, 778 females). Cross-sectional study
Diabetic foot 40% (n = 50), cardiovascular disease 28.9% (n = 201), cerebrovascular disease 10.6% (n = 74) Study year: 1 Jan-31 Dec 2006 [49]
Sample and study design: 722 diabetes patients, Retrospective review of medicinal records of DMT2 patients
DM duration more than 15 years vs. DM duration less than 15 years group Study year: April-December 2003 [66]
DN 49.4% vs. 33.9%, DR 54.3% vs. 22.8%; myocardial infarction 9.4% vs. 3.5%, peripheral arterial disease, 17.3% vs. 5.5%, foot ulcer 13.4% vs. 5.3%,, stroke 9.4% vs. 7.0% and amputation 5.5% vs. 2.0%; all p values less than 0.01). Setting: 11 tertiary diabetes centres
  Sample and study design: 9,284 adult diabetes Type 2 patients registered to the Diabetes registry project, 2,244 patients with duration of diabetes more than 15 years and 7,040 patients with duration of diabetes less than 15 years. The longer duration group was on average older than the shoter duration group. Cross-sectional study. Thailand diabetes registry project
Ischaemic heart disease 8.1% (n = 761) Study year: April-December 2003 [13]
Cerebrovascular 4.4% (n = 415) Setting: 11 tertiary care medical centres
Peripheral vascular disease 11.4% (including amputation 1.6%, foot ulcer, and absence of peripheral pulse) Sample and study design: 9,419 diabetic patients, 65.9% females, 94.6% DMT2, 4.5% DMT1, 0.1% MODY. Cross-sectional, hospital based study. Thailand diabetes registry project  
Chronic kidney disease (CKD)   
Prevalence of CKD stage 3 to 5 was 27.09% (n = 194) and 25.38% (n = 181) using Cockcroft-Gault formula and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula respectively Study year: April- August 2007 [51]
Setting: Six primary health care units in Udon Thani province
Sample and study design: 714 diabetic patients, 542 females and 174 males. Cross-sectional study, cluster random sampling method
CKD stage 1 23.2% (n = 113), stage 2 28.7% (n = 140), stage 3 37.3 (n = 182), stage 4 8.2% (n = 40), stage 5 2.7% (n = 13) Study year: 1 Jan-31 Dec 2006 [49]
Setting: 1 tertiary hospital, out-patient department
Sample and study design: 722 diabetes patients. Retrospective review of medical records of DMT2 patients
7.7% patients had renal insufficiency and 0.47% end-stage renal disease Study year: April-December 2003 [73]
Setting: 11 tertiary centres  
  Sample and study design: 4,875 patients, 63.8% females. Cross-sectional study, hospital based study.