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Table 2 Direct and indirect cost of diabetes in Thailand

From: Diabetes management in Thailand: a literature review of the burden, costs, and outcomes

Estimate Summary of the main features of the study Reference
Direct and indirect costs   
Median and (mean) cost of illness per type of patient per year Study year: Oct 2007- Sep 2008 [60] same study as [37, 38]
Independent: USD$ 124 (USD$ 598), SD 2152 Reference year for estimate is the fiscal year 2008
Disabled: USD$ 811 (USD$ 2,700), SD 4982 Setting: Waritchaphum Hospital. A 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand
  Sample and study design: 475 randomly selected diabetic patients. Prevalence-based cost of illness, societal perspective  
Median and (mean) cost of illness per patient (both disabled and independent) per year: USD 140 (USD$ 881),[82.01-552.50] Study year: Oct 2007- Sep 2008 [37] same study as [38, 60]
This included 23% of direct medical cost, 40% of direct non-medical cost, and 37% of indirect cost Reference year for estimate is the fiscal year 2008
Informal care contributed to 28% of total cost of illness Setting: Waritchaphum Hospital. A 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand.
  Sample and study design: 475 randomly selected diabetic patients. Prevalence-based cost of illness, societal perspective  
Direct costs   
Average public treatment cost per patient per year was USD 95 Study year: Oct 2007- Sep 2008 [62]
Drug cost was the highest cost component (25% of total cost), followed by inpatient cost (24%) and outpatient visit cost (17%). Reference year for estimate is the fiscal year 2008
  Setting: Waritchaphum Hospital. A 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand.
  Sample and study design: 475 randomly selected diabetic patients. Retrospective prevalence-based cost of illness study, provider perspective  
Annual average cost of illness (including patients with complications): USD$ 158 (THB 6,331) Study year: October 2000-September 2001 [52]
Contribution to the total cost: 45% pharmacy services, 24% outpatient services, 16% inpatient services, 11% laboratory investigations. Setting: 30-bed public community hospital in central Thailand
Annual cost for DMT2 and DMT1 patients with no complication USD$ 101 (THB 4,037) and USD$ 251 (THB 10,059) respectively Sample and study design: 186 diabetes patients. Retrospective prevalence-based cost of illness study, provider perspective  
Indirect costs   
Median and (mean) cost of informal care per month Study year: 2008 [38] same study as
Opportunity cost approach: USD 27 (USD$ 37) Setting: Waritchaphum Hospital. A 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand.
Proxy good method: Sample and study design: 190 informal caregivers. Interview with carers, revealed preference method
USD$ 23 (USD 34)  
Average time spent on informal care was 112 hours per month   
  1. SD: Standard deviation, [] interquartile range.