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Table 3 Odds ratios for catastrophic or impoverishing spending for those with NCDs and Injuries compared to those with Communicable Diseases, India, 2004

From: The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

Variable Catastrophic spending* Impoverishing spending**
Cardiovascular disease 1.12 (0.99,1.27) 1.37 (1.23,1.53)
Injuries 1.22 (1.09,1.37) 1.22 (1.13,1.31)
Cancer 2.70 (2.10,3.10) 2.33 (1.86,2.91)
Other NCDs 1.12 (1.04, 1.27) 1.19 (1.09,1.24)
  1. Note: 95% confidence intervals are in parentheses. Variables included in logit regression were age, sex, education, urban/rural residence *40% of annual household expenditure less poverty line level of spending; **Total hospitalization spending was subtracted from total household spending to assess whether a household fell below poverty line due to health spending.