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Table 1 Studies (n = 14) included in the mapping

From: Diabetes and depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low and middle income countries (LMICs): a mapping of the evidence

Author Year of publication Sample size Country of study Association with SES Recommended intervention Clinical assessment Analysis
Agbir 2010 160 Nigeria No significant association between patients with diabetes and depression and SES Screen people with diabetes for depression especially those at “high risk” (e.g.: unmarried females); increase patient compliance to treatment, prevent complications, improve quality of life. Clinical assessment of depression and blood glucose Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults
Eren 2008 108 Turkey Negative correlation with SES (education) Early detection and treatment of depression in people with diabetes. Clinical assessment of depression and blood glucose Impact of depression on diabetic quality of life.
James 2010 400 Nigeria SES(Education, occupation, income) Screening for depression among people with diabetes and management of depression to improve quality of life and reduce treatment costs Questionnaire and blood glucose Prevalence of depression and SES
Kilzieh 2008 2038 Syria Comorbidity decreases with increasing SES Deliver treatment for depression in primary care settings because access to mental health services are limited and stigmatised. Questionnaire and diabetes self-reported assess the comorbidity and correlates of depression in chronic diseases in a community
Mansour 2007 103, 103 Iraq SES(Education, occupation, income) None made Questionnaire and blood glucose Determine the prevalence of comorbid depression among sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control for social class
Mier 2008 200 Mexico and USA Low education increases risk of depression Depression screening among diabetic patients by family practice physicians. Questionnaire and diabetes self-reported prevalence and correlates of clinical depressive symptoms in Hispanics of Mexican origin with type 2 diabetes
Pan 2008 3285 China Low education level and presence of co-morbidities associated with depressive symptoms None made Questionnaire and blood glucose Association between insulin resistance and depressive symptoms
Raval 2010 300 India Relationship between comorbidity and income and education unclear None made Questionnaire and blood glucose Prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM)
Sevincok 2001 98 Turkey Failed to find association between None made Clinical assessment and blood glucose Assess association of socio-demographic variables for patients with and without comorbidity
Tellez-Zenteno 2002 189 Mexico Higher risk of depression for lower SES Screen for depression in all diabetic patients, so that early diagnosis and treatment can improve patient metabolic control and enhance patient quality of life. Clinical assessment and blood glucose Identify the prevalence and factors associated with depression in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Thaneerat 2009 250 Thailand Association for co-morbid patients not clear Early detection of depression among diabetic patients self-reported questionnaire and blood glucose To estimate the prevalence of depression, and poor glycemic control, and to determine the associated factors in outpatients with type-2 diabetes.
Yang 2009 148 China Not clear Early detection and treatment of depression in people with diabetes by community nurses and provision of social support. Self-reported Questionnaire and diabetes self-reported To examine levels of perceived social support and depression and to identify the related factors and
Yekta 2010 295 Iran Lower educated higher risk of depression None made Self-reported questionnaire and blood glucose taken To describe the prevalence of depression in patients attending a diabetes clinic determine the associated sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical factors.
Zhang CX 2008 304 China Not clear Identify source of patient stress; Advise on active coping styles; Mobilize more social support resources to reduce risk of depression in Type 2 diabetes. Clinical assessment and blood glucose To investigate association of psychosocial factors with anxiety and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients
  1. Depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of disease burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes, accounting for approximately 12% of the total years lived with disability [4]. The evidence base and data for LICs are under-developed, but it is estimated that the average lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of major depression episodes was 11.1% and 5.9%, respectively, on the basis of data from eight LMICs [23].