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Table 2 Associations of work stress with depressive symptoms (multivariate logistic regression analyses) (N = sample with complete data)

From: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents

   Depressive Symptoms
   USA EUROPE Japan
Effort-reward imbalance Yes 2.28 (1.59 – 3.28) *** 1.97 (1.75 – 2.23) *** 1.64 (1.02 – 2.63) *
  No (Ref.)    
  N= 1510 10047 1083
Low Control Yes 2.26 (1.57 – 3.25) *** 1.66 (1.45 – 1.90) *** 1.59 (0.88 – 2.86)
  No (Ref.)    
  N= 1560 10342 1226
  1. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Cross-sectional data from 2006.
  2. Odds Ratios are adjusted for gender, age, education, employment status, working hours.
  3. Given the multilevel structure of the European data, we applied multilevel methods where individuals (level 1) are nested within countries (level 2).
  4. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.