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Table 2 Indicators

From: The 'global health' education framework: a conceptual guide for monitoring, evaluation and practice

Category Indicators Description Questions (examples) Rationale Methods
OBJECT Dimensional Coverage of Objects The extent to which the dimensions of the framework are covered by recommendations, curricular proposals or educational interventions. - Are social determinants of health the predominant object? - Are territorial health issues in the domestic country of the student addressed? - Are territorial health issues in other countries addressed? - Are health issues addressed which transcend national boundaries? - Are supraterritorial health issues addressed? To analyse the dimensional scope of recommendations/proposals/interventions.  
ORIENTATION Health for all   - Are accountability issues of health professionals/the state/civil-society/the private sector/health systems/societies addressed?   
   The extent to which recommendations, curricular proposals or educational interventions explicitly address / explain / cover the underlying principles of ‘health for all’. - Is the human right to health approach addressed? To analyse the extent to which the principles of 'health for all' are applied/existent/recommended in teaching and learning. - (Systematic) Review of curricula/recommendations
    - Is 'health for all' as a concept explained?   - Interviews with deans/chair of faculties
    - Is there a focus on vulnerable groups?   - Questionnaire-based surveys
    - Are equity issues addressed?   
    - Are theoretical and operational principles/mechanisms of solidarity in health/health systems/societies addressed?   
    - Are theoretical and practical principles/mechanisms of participation in health/health systems/societies addressed?   
  Equity Focus The extent to which recommendations, curricular proposals or educational interventions are focussed on health equity. - Are social theories of equality/inequality addressed? - Are inequalities in health addressed? - Are (avoidable) causes of health inequalities addressed? - Are the operational principles of equity in health/health systems/societies addressed? To analyse whether recommendations/proposals/interventions have an equity focus.  
OUTCOME Dimensional Coverage of Knowledge The state or condition of understanding facts (as defined or attained) related to a particular dimension of the framework. - Is knowledge attained/recommended/proposed related to the object of the field? If yes, in which areas? And on which levels? - ...on territorial levels? - ...on inter -/transterritorial levels? - ...on supraterritoral levels? To analyse in which areas and dimensions the analysed recommendations/proposals/interventions (aim to) impart knowledge. - Objective assessments of knowledge/skills/competence among students/graduates
  - Review of curricula/recommendations     
  Dimensional Coverage of Skills The ability (as defined or attained) to use one's knowledge effectively in execution or performance related to a particular dimension of the framework. - Are skills imparted attained/recommended/proposed related to the object of the field..? If yes, in which areas? And on which levels? - ...on territorial levels? - ...on inter -/transterritorial levels? - ...on supraterritoral levels? To analyse in which areas and dimensions the analysed recommendations/proposals/interventions (aim to) impart skills. - Interviews/surveys among deans/chair of faculties
  Dimensional Coverage of Competencies The cluster of knowledge, skills and ability (as defined or attained) to meet complex demands, by drawing on psychosocial resources (including attitudes) in a particular context (related to a particular dimension of the framework). - Are competencies attained/recommended/proposed related to the object of the field? If yes, in which areas? And on which levels? - ...on territorial levels? - ...on inter -/transterritorial levels? - ...on supraterritoral levels? To analyse in which areas and dimensions the analysed recommendations/proposals/interventions (aim to) impart competencies.  
METHODOLOGY Multi -/Inter - disciplinarity The extent to which learning from and with other disciplines is included/addressed/recommended/realised in recommendations, curricular proposals or educational interventions. - Are educators from different disciplines involved in teaching? - Are students from different disciplines involved in learning? - Is there a diversity in epistemological perspectives on health? To analyse whether other ('non-medical') schools of thought are prevalent in teaching and learning.  
  - Interviews/surveys among students/graduates/deans/chair of faculties     
  Problem-orientation & Bottom-up learning The extent to which problem-orientation and bottom-up learning is prevalent/applied/realised in recommendations, curricular proposals or educational interventions. - Are educational strategies based on real problems? - Are educational strategies based on scenarios? - Do educational strategies address the reality of the student? - Do educational strategies link structural determinants of health with the doctor-patient relationship? Or with other levels of professional work? To analyse the applied/recommended methods in teaching and learning. - Review of curricula/recommendations
SOCIOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS & IMPLICATIONS Driving Forces Perceived or evident socio-political conditions, which raise particular implications for health; from the perspective of stakeholders, providers and the target group. - Are factors mentioned which influence health and health needs? - Which of the dimensions do they cover? - Do these factors have (directly or indirectly) implications for medical education? - Do they raise educational needs? Perceived or evidently? To analyse which socio-political conditions are regarded as drivers for medical education reform - Stakeholder analysis (interviews/focus group discussions)
  - Delphi method     
  Implications Perceived or evident implications for medical education which arise from particular driving forces; from the perspective of stakeholders, providers and the target group. - Which concrete implications are raised by particular driving forces? - Which educational needs are raised? - What is the evidence-base of raised educational needs? To analyse the implications for medical education among the literature, which arise as a result of particular socio-political conditions. - (Sytematic) Review of policy documents/recommendations