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Table 4 Socio-economic and demographic correlates of healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults (2003 and 2008)

From: Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

Socio-demographic variables 2003 B (Std. Error) 2008 B (Std. Error)
  Females Males Females Males
Constant 1.489 (.374)*** 2.454 (.456)*** 1.827 (.076)*** 1.686 (.094)***
Type of place of residence     
   Rural     
   Urban -.136 (.178) -.493 (.246)* -.038 (.048) -.025 (.056)
Age     
   18-19     
   20-29 .251 (.363) .281 (.393) -.052 (.067) .035 (.074)
   30-39 .176 (.388) -.112 (.448) .000 (.076) .023 (.090)
   40-49 .206 (.404) -.398 (.475) .043 (.080) .068 (.096)
Marital status     
   Never married     
   Married/cohabiting -.246 (.229) .784 (.275)** -.069 (.053) .111 (.060)
   Formerly married -.489 (.295) .040 (.487) -.059 (.075) -.009 (.109)
Highest level of educational attainment     
   No formal education     
   Primary education -.088 (.167) -.639 (.250)* .089 (.053) .318 (.074)***
   Secondary education -.063 (.322) -.634 (.376) .188 (.049)*** .426 (.065)***
   Higher education -.331 (.605) -.570 (.523) .252 (.112)* .521 (.101)***
Main occupation     
   Not working     
   Professional -.478 (.333) -.864 (.409)* .338 (.097)*** .045 (.080)
   Sales/services .116 (.242) .145 (.353) .281 (.054)*** .012 (.089)
   Agriculture/fishery .848 (.248)** 1.110 (321)** .481 (.063)*** .216 (.076)**
   Plant/machine operators and elementary work .273 (.297) .478 (.444) .170 (.071)* .049 (.076)
Income quintile     
   Poorest     
   Poor .269 (.223) .736 (.298)* .003 (.056) .336 (.066)***
   Middle .289 (.229) .603 (.303)* -.129 (.063)* .176 (.077)*
   Rich -.165 (.242) -.009 (.315) -.207 (.070)** . 121 (.085)
   Richest -.077 (268) .352 (.366) -.294 (.077)*** -.044 (.094)
  1. = Reference category ***P < 0.001 **P < 0.01 *P < 0.05
  2. Total N 2003 (Females = 1,519, Males = 1,278) 2008 (Females = 4,306, Males = 3,503)
  3. Source: Generated from WHS-Ghana 2003 and GDHS, 2008