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Table 3 Percentage distribution of respondents by demographic and socio-economic characteristics and healthy lifestyle behaviour (2008)

From: Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

Socio-demographic and economic characteristics Healthy lifestyle behaviour
  Females Males
  High Moderate Low High Moderate Low
Type of place of residence    ***    ***
   Urban 38.4 34.1 27.6 35.7 36.0 28.3
   Rural 30.1 32.7 37.2 31.5 30.6 37.9
Age group    **    **
   18-19 31.9 37.7 30.4 40.5 32.2 27.3
   20-29 35.5 34.2 30.4 34.5 32.8 32.7
   30-39 33.9 32.1 34.1 31.9 33.9 34.2
   40-49 31.4 31.5 37.1 29.5 32.0 38.5
Marital status    **    ***
   Never married 33.8 37.5 28.7 37.1 32.1 30.9
   Currently married/cohabiting 33.5 32.5 34.1 30.9 32.9 36.2
   Formerly married 35.7 29.7 34.5 30.1 40.4 29.5
Highest level of educational attainment    *    *
   No formal education 33.1 31.5 35.5 38.4 28.5 33.1
   Primary 33.9 30.9 35.2 32.7 31.3 36.1
   Secondary 34.1 35.0 30.9 31.9 33.9 34.2
   Higher 33.7 37.6 28.7 33.0 37.9 29.1
Main occupation    ***    ***
   Not working 40.7 37.6 21.7 40.7 31.3 28.0
   Professional/managerial/clerical 29.3 40.4 30.2 33.4 38.1 28.5
   Service and sales 35.0 34.3 30.8 32.1 42.7 25.2
   Agricultural and fishery 27.4 29.3 43.2 30.4 28.5 41.1
   Plant/machine operators and elementary work 38.3 30.2 31.4 34.2 22.9 31.9
Income quintile    ***    ***
   Poorest 29.6 30.5 39.9 35.8 29.0 35.3
   Poor 28.4 33.1 38.6 26.4 27.9 45.6
   Middle 33.0 32.8 34.2 32.3 33.0 34.8
   Rich 39.0 32.5 28.5 34.5 35.4 30.2
   Richest 38.6 37.9 23.4 36.5 39.0 30.2
Total 33.8 33.3 32.9 33.3 32.9 33.8
  1. High = Less healthy (more risky behaviours) Low = More healthy (less risky behaviours)
  2. ***P < 0.001 **P < 0.01 *P < 0.05 Total N (Females = 4,306, Males = 3,503)
  3. Source: Generated from GDHS, 2008