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Table 4 The Relationship between Palm Oil Consumption and IHD Mortality Rates in High Income and Developing Countries Remains Unchanged when Adjusting for Other Sources of Dietary Saturated Fat

From: Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

Dependent variable in all regressions: IHD mortality Adjusting for Beef Consumption Adjusting for Coconut Oil Consumption Adjusting for Milk Consumption Adjusting for Butter Consumption Adjusting for Cheese Consumption Adjusting for Pork Consumption Adjusting for Chicken Consumption
Palm oil consumption (kg per-capita) 18.9 3.3 -3.4 -1.2 1.7 19 19
  [7.7 - 30] [-1.4 - 7.9] [-39 - 32] [-43 - 41] [-40 - 43] [8.0 - 30] [8.4 - 30]
Additional effect of palm oil in developing countries (kg per-capita) 52 149 70 59 65 41 72
  [26 - 78] [93 - 205] [19 - 120] [-58 - 175] [-58 - 188] [10 - 72] [18 - 126]
Cigarette consumption (pieces per-capita) -0.00 0.26 0.01 0.05 0.07 -0.03 0.11
  [-0.29 - 0.29] [0.15 - 0.37] [-0.18 - 0.21] [-0.20 - 0.29] [-0.15 - 0.28] [-0.23 - 0.18] [-0.26 - 0.48]
Log per-capita GDP (%) -2,259 -728 -2,262 -2,116 -2,469 -2,370 -2,191
  [-3,201 - -1,317] [-1,061 - -395] [-2,830 - -1,695] [-2,851 - -1,381] [-3,160 - -1,779] [-3,271 - -1,469] [-3,002 - -1,381]
1980s (compared to 1990s) -176 6.7 -171 -133 -152 -162 -154
  [-348 - -4.7] [-68 - 82] [-341 - -1.2] [-304 - 38] [-328 - 23] [-353 - 28] [-425 - 118]
Beef consumption (kg per-capita) 6.6       
  [-17 - 30]       
Coconut oil consumption (kg per-capita)   21      
   [-35 - 77]      
Milk consumption (kg per-capita)    4.8     
    [-0.7 - 10]     
Butter consumption (kg per-capita)     -50    
     [-119 - 19]    
Cheese consumption (kg per-capita)      32   
      [-15 - 79]   
Pork consumption (kg per-capita)       9.6  
       [-10 - 29]  
Chicken consumption (kg per-capita)        6.3
        [-30 - 43]
Constant 23,221 7,942 23,066 22,180 25,213 24,411 22,299
  [13,631 - 32,811] [4,505 - 11,379] [17,424 - 28,708] [14,900 - 29,460] [18,243 - 32,183] [15,454 - 33,368] [13,483 - 31,115]
Observations 217 153 181 177 177 209 202
R-squared 0.60 0.89 0.70 0.64 0.64 0.61 0.59
Number of countries 22 13 20 19 19 21 20