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Table 2 Export of health services [2, 4, 5]

From: Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia


Estimated earnings

No. foreign patients

Origin of patients

(in order of volume)


Thailand (2006)

Baht 36 billion

(US$ 1.1 billion)

1.4 million

Japan, USA, South Asia, UK, Middle East, ASEAN countries

Cosmetic and sex change surgery

Singapore (2007)

S$ 1.7 billion

(US$ 1.2 billion)

571 000

Indonesia, Malaysia, Middle East

Cardiac and neuro surgery, joint replacements, liver transplants

Malaysia (2007)

253.84 million MYR

(US$78 million)

341 288

Indonesia, Singapore, Japan, India, Europe

Cardiac and cosmetic surgery