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Table 1 Comparison of disease outcomes and risk factor levels among populations of African descent in the UK and the Netherlands

From: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

  Men Women
  African Caribbeans Sub-Saharan Africans African Surinamese African Caribbeans Sub-Saharan Africans African Surinamese
Disease outcomes       
Stroke [25] + + + + + +
Coronary heart disease [25] - - - - - -
Type II diabetes [26, 27, 34, 71] + + + + + +
Chemical measurement risk factors       
High total cholesterol* [26, 89, 71] - - - - - -
Low HDL cholesterol [26, 89, 71] - - - - = -
ApoA-1 [89] =    =   
ApoB [89] -    -   
Physical measurement risk factors       
Hypertension [23, 24] + + + + + +
Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) [23, 24, 94, 97] = - = + + +
Abdominal obesity [23, 24, 94] - - - + + +
Self-reported risk factors       
Current smoking [93, 94] = - + = - -
Alcohol consumption [93, 94] - - - - - -
Physical inactivity (non-adherence to recommendations) [66, 93] = + + - = +
Consumption of < 5 portions of fruit and vegetables* [93, 110] - - - ** - - - **
Psychosocial stress [26, 122125] inconsistent inconsistent   inconsistent inconsistent  
  1. - Lower risk than White European population
  2. + higher risk than White European population
  3. = comparable risk to White European population
  4. * applied only to the non-UK born
  5. ** the Dutch group were based on overall diet quality