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Table 1 Prevention: legal and regulatory priorities for reducing major risk factors for non-communicable diseases within the population[4]

From: The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases

Tobacco Comprehensive implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHA56.1) especially:
Imposing and increasing excise taxes on tobacco to reduce demand (FCTC Article 6) [BEST BUY];
Smoking bans in public places, including workplaces, public transport, bars and restaurants (FCTC Article 8) [BEST BUY];
Health warnings on tobacco products, and at point of sale; labelling controls (FCTC Article 11,12) [BEST BUY];
Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, including in all media, in community settings, and in retail establishments (FCTC Article 13) [BEST BUY];
Bans on sales of tobacco to and by children, with monitoring and enforcement (FCTC Article 16);
Penalties for smuggled and counterfeit tobacco; with adequate resources for monitoring and enforcement (Article 15; protocol to eliminate illicit trade in tobacco products);
Affordable treatment for tobacco dependence: supporting interventions for smoking cessation in primary care; affordable pharmacological therapies (FCTC Article 14);
Alcohol Implementation of the WHO Global Alcohol Strategy (A63/13), especially:
Increasing excise taxes on alcoholic beverages (paras. 32–34) [BEST BUY];
Penalties for smuggled and informal alcohol, with adequate resources for monitoring and enforcement (paras. 37–39);
Restrictions on alcohol advertising and promotion through the media, in community settings and retail establishments; restrictions on alcohol sponsorship of cultural and sporting events (paras. 29–31) [BEST BUY];
Controls on access to retailed alcohol, including minimum age purchasing laws, licensing and other controls on hours of retail sale, location and density of retail outlets (para. 27–28) [BEST BUY];
Health warnings on alcohol products and at point of sale (paras. 19, 36);
Drink-driving counter-measures, including random breath testing, a maximum 0.5 g/l blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for adult drivers, with a reduced or zero limit for younger drivers (paras. 24–26);
  Building on the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (WHA57.17):
  Institutional and governance reform to enable development of a comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach to policy development for diet, nutrition and physical activity, with input from key sectors (agriculture, transport, education, environmental and urban planning, sport, youth, industry, finance, and media and communications). City and local governments should have a legal mandate to play a leading role (paras. 38–44);
Diet, and physical activity Measures to reduce salt levels in food, such as encouraging food reformulation through public reporting of food manufacturers’ commitments to progressive reductions (para. 41); measures to replace saturated with unsaturated fats in food products;
  Requiring food manufacturers to replace trans fats with polyunsaturated fats (para. 41) [4] [BEST BUY];
  Restrictions on marketing of foods and beverages high in salt, sugar and fats (especially to children): WHO, Set of recommendations on marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children WHA 64.14, adopted May 2010);
  Improving food labelling to encourage healthier choices;
  Fiscal measures such as reduced taxation on healthier foods, and/or higher taxation for foods to be consumed in lower quantities (para 41);
  Legislation to protect women’s right to breast-feed, without harassment or discrimination [4].
Other strategies Hepatitis B vaccination.