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Table 5 Probability of finding a tracer medicine in a sample outlet, by rural and urban location and manufacturing origin, 2006 and 2009 (40 medicines)

From: Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

Location 2006 2009
Manufactured in Tanzania and imported (20 medicines) Imported only: not manufactured in Tanzania (20 medicines) Manufactured in Tanzania and imported (21 medicines) Imported only: not manufactured in Tanzania (19 medicines)
Rural 0.53 (0.016) 0.26 (0.014) 0.49 (0.016) 0.34 (0.016)
Urban 0.71 (0.015) 0.56 (0.016) 0.63 (0.016) 0.58 (0.017)
Difference -0.18 (0.022) -0.30 (0.022) -0.14 (0.023) -0.24 (0.023)
Two sample test of proportions: z-test = -7.91 z-test = -13.27 z-test = -5.93 z-test = -9.91
H0 : Prural = Purban Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000 Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000 Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000 Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000
Ha : Prural ≠ Purban Null-hypothesis is rejected Null-hypothesis is rejected Null-hypothesis is rejected Null-hypothesis is rejected
  1. Note: sampling errors in brackets (in italics).