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Table 4 Probability of finding a medicine manufactured outside Tanzania or Kenya in a sample outlet, by rural and urban location, 2006 and 2009 (40 medicines)

From: Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

Location 2006 2009
Probability Standard error Sample size Probability Standard error Sample size
Rural 0.163 0.0085 1880 0.251 0.0100 1880
Urban 0.375 0.0113 1840 0.412 0.0116 1800
Difference -0.212 0.014   -0.160 0.0160  
Two sample test of proportions: z-test = -14.575 z-test = -10.324
H0 : Prural = Purban Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000 Pr(|Z| < |z|) = 0.0000
Ha : Prural ≠ Purban Null-hypothesis is rejected Null-hypothesis is rejected