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Table 1 The nexus of global trade and foodborne pathogens.

From: The global diet: trade and novel infections



Trade-related interaction


Described in the late 1880s in swine. Subsequently recognized in humans, poultry, cattle, rodents and exotic pets.

Use of antimicrobials in livestock in response to heightened global competition has contributed to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains such as S. typhimurium DT104 and S. Newport-MDRAmpC.

Escherichia coli O157:H7

Identified as a pathogenic agent in humans in 1982. Hosts include cows, deer, sheep, horses, pigs and dogs.

Intensified production and far-reaching distribution channels in the meat industry enable widespread dissemination in vehicles such as ground beef.

Cyclospora cayetanensis

First documented cases observed in humans 1977. Only known host is humans.

Hardy oocysts are transported on produce exported to geographic regions where the parasite previously had been largely unknown.

Listeria monocytogenes

Detected in 1926 in rabbits and guinea pigs, identified as a source of human infection in 1929 and perinatal contamination in 1936.

Increased popularity on the global market of raw milk cheeses and ready-to-eat products contributed to surge in listeriosis.