An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees
© DeCamp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 23 October 2012
Accepted: 5 February 2013
Published: 14 February 2013
Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues.
We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum.
The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably.
The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad.
KeywordsCurriculum development Ethics Global health education Global health electives Global health training Online education Short-term medical outreach Evaluation
Surveys of medical students [1, 2] and residents in varying specialties [3–6] demonstrate widespread and increasing interest in global health training electives abroad. These electives promote a number of goals for trainees including the acquisition of global health knowledge, refinement of clinical skills, development of cultural sensitivity, and cultivation of social justice [7–10]. Evidence suggests that global health electives might support residents’ fulfillment of certain education requirements (e.g., the U.S. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ) and lead trainees to pursue careers in underserved areas [12, 13]. When done well, short-term electives can also contribute to greater global health equity by supporting long-term collaborative efforts .
Training electives across international borders can raise a number of ethical issues, including lack of adequate supervision, exceeding trainees’ level of training, sustainability of benefits, and reducing the risk of harm, among others [9, 15–19]. Ethical issues can also arise when trainees engage in research, for example, when dealing with the challenge of obtaining informed consent . Broad awareness of these ethical issues began with anecdotes, personal narratives, and case studies of trainees struggling with ethical issues abroad [21–25]. These issues are now being examined with systematic qualitative methods involving trainees [26–28] and faculty .
The need to address ethical issues in global health training has also been recognized in proposed ethics guidelines [30–33]. Some program planners have proposed improving current short-term global health training programs by acknowledging and managing ethical issues, either explicitly [34–36] or implicitly [37, 38]. A recent international collaborative effort, the Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT), developed best practice guidelines for training experiences in global health . The WEIGHT guidelines address a wide range of ethical issues faced by trainees, host institutions, and sending institutions to ensure mutual and reciprocal benefits for all stakeholders. Among a number of key issues, the guidelines emphasize the need for full accounting of costs associated with short-term training, the importance of long-term partnerships, and the need for adequate supervision and preparation of trainees.
However, a recent literature review found infrequent inclusion of ethics or social responsibility among key competencies for undergraduate or graduate global health education , and a clear need exists for an accessible, introductory ethics curriculum geared toward trainees. In this article, we describe the development of a freely available, introductory online ethics curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training” (http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org). We then report usage statistics and demographic data of curriculum users, including information about prior global health and global health ethics experiences, to assess the curriculum’s ability to reach its target audience. In closing we discuss the implications of these findings for future ethics curriculum development for short-term global health training. We focus on trainees in the traditional sense (i.e., medical professionals still in training), where a unique opportunity exists to introduce these issues. More broadly, however, our use of “trainees” could include individuals, including faculty and independent practitioners, with limited or no prior global health experience. We have a similarly broad definition of “short-term training and service programs,” recognizing that no universal definition of key terms, such as “short-term” or “training,” may exist and that diverse programs might benefit from an introductory ethics curriculum.
We developed the curriculum in four stages: (1) case solicitation; (2) content drafting; (3) content review; and (4) curriculum launch. This was followed by an open user evaluation to investigate the curriculum’s ability to reach target users and inform future curriculum development. The primary objective of the curriculum was to increase awareness of common ethical issues trainees might face in short-term global health training and service programs. Secondary objectives included trainee acquisition of strategies for dealing with these issues and increased trainee confidence in navigating them.
The authors solicited actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders within short-term programs from members of WEIGHT; program leaders from universities in the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH); colleagues who administer training programs; cases cited in the academic literature; and personal experiences. WEIGHT included a number of members from low- or middle-income countries (LMIC) worldwide, and CUGH membership similarly includes universities located in LMICs. After collecting a number of ethical issues and scenarios with varying ethics themes, we employed a purposive strategy to develop the received issues and scenarios into ten cases meant to address a range of important and commonly encountered ethical issues. Disagreements were resolved by consensus.
For each case, we chose three major ethical themes or issues to highlight. To illuminate each theme, a primary author scripted a short video vignette and a thought provoking multiple-choice question with corrective feedback for both correct and incorrect answers. Each case included trainees at various stages of professional development to engage the curriculum’s target audience. The primary author additionally drafted a conclusion page to summarize the themes and provided additional relevant references and resources. For all cases, identifying locales, persons, and institutions were removed. Because real-life cases are rich in detail but might not reveal all three important themes, some elements of different cases were combined or fictionalized to better meet the educational objectives.
The curriculum launched November 1, 2011. Since the target audience included trainees from diverse disciplines with limited or no experience in global health planning to travel abroad for short-term training, the curriculum was publicized in a number of ways, including: posting on the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and Stanford University Center for Innovation in Global Health web pages (including Facebook and Twitter); communication via email lists, such as through the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, Global Health Education Consortium, and American Medical Student Association; and via direct personal communication to colleagues in global health.
Open user evaluation
To assess the curriculum’s ability to reach its target users and obtain feedback on the curriculum content, we monitored web use statistics and requested users to complete anonymous surveys, which we had developed (described in more detail below).
Web statistics were provided by the web host and allowed tracking of the use of the curriculum and referral patterns important for understanding curriculum dissemination. First, to assess overall traffic, we collected hits, visits, and unique visits to the site. When a user accesses any site content (e.g., a video montage), a “hit” is recorded. If the user navigates several pages within a specified time (i.e., thirty minutes), a “visit” is recorded. If that user’s IP address has not been recorded previously within a specified time (i.e., thirty minutes), it counts as a “unique visit.” To approximate unique users, we were most interested in unique visits. This measure is important because web crawlers and other automated programs randomly access online content and may inflate the number of hits. Second, to assess how users access the site, the web host tracked the website from which a user came to visit our site (i.e., the referrer). This includes “direct referrals” that occur when a user directly types in the web link, accesses it from an email or other document, or uses bookmarks within their browser. Some web crawlers are also recorded as direct referrals.
The anonymous survey – conducted using Survey Monkey™ – was accessible from various points within the curriculum. The basic user survey included demographic data (e.g., age, sex, race, ethnicity, citizenship, and occupation) and prior experience in global health and global health ethics. In addition, users were separately asked to complete a brief survey following each case using 5-point Likert scales (from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”), yes/no questions, and open ended feedback. Data were downloaded in Excel and descriptively analyzed. This portion of the research was declared exempt from further review by the Johns Hopkins Medicine Institutional Review Board. The surveys are provided in Additional files 1 and 2.
The ten cases remain available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.organd address ethical issues in three different domains:
Developing Cultural Understanding
Ensuring Personal Safety
Exceeding Level of Training
Telling the “Truth”
Ensuring Sustainable and Appropriate Benefits
Addressing “Ancillary Benefits”
Selecting a Research Project
Understanding Informed Consent
While the responsibilities and decisions of trainees, host sites, sending institutions, and sponsors in short-term global health training overlap and intersect, the curriculum’s focus is on trainees. As such, some cases focus directly on trainee behavior, such as “Exceeding Level of Training” or “Telling the Truth.” Others place the trainee in complex situations where host site and sending institution responsibilities affect trainees’ experiences, such as in “Ensuring Sustainable and Appropriate Benefits” or “Recognizing Burdens.” The final two cases address difficult research questions trainees might face. Each case requires ten minutes or less to complete (as determined by pilot users), and all ten cases follow a similar structure, can be completed in any order, and do not require a login or email account for access. The certificate of completion for each case allows instructors to use any or all of the cases for particular needs and verify that learners have completed the case (e.g., prior to a class discussion).
For example, describing case four, “Ensuring Sustainable and Appropriate Benefits,” illustrates how the curriculum uses video montages, multiple choice questions, and real-time corrective feedback to meet curriculum objectives. In this case, a fifteen second video clip (with transcript available for slow Internet speeds) depicts a medical trainee with the mother of a sick child. The trainee is struggling with whether to give the sick child the only antibiotic on hand, even though it represents substandard treatment. In the first multiple-choice question, the user must decide whether to give the antibiotic. If the user incorrectly chooses, “Yes. Anything might help,” red text corrects the user and asks him or her to choose again. The correct answer asks the trainee to consult with his or her supervisor first and acknowledges the complexity of a single “correct” answer in this case. Thus, vignette one introduces trainees to an important ethical theme in short-term training, the potential for limited resources.
The second vignette builds upon this. In this video clip, the trainee is taking the right approach and discussing the matter with his supervisor. The trainee asks, “Why do we only have this particular antibiotic?” After his supervisor tells him it was the only one donated, the multiple-choice question forces the user to critically examine ethical issues arising with donated items. Concepts include the need for community involvement in decision-making and assurance that the items truly respond to local community needs. Thus, vignette two introduces trainees to another important theme in short-term programs, ethical issues with donated medical supplies.
Following a third vignette, the Conclusion provides a short framework for trainees might use to explore the proposed benefits of short-term programs:
Who decided the benefits were needed?
What counts as a benefit of a short-term program in the first place?
Where is the benefit distributed (i.e., how was this site chosen)?
How are benefits distributed?
And, are the benefits sustainable?
The conclusion also provides a reference and link to the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Drug Donations for further reading.
Web usage data
Web data of usage were collected for eight months (November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012). Since launching the curriculum, the number of unique visits per month has been nearly stable, with a mean of 238 per month and a standard deviation of 19. No month had more than 300 unique visitors, and no month had less than 200.
During this eight month period, the top referrer to our site was a “direct referrer,” which as stated previously, represents when a user directly types in the web link, accesses it from an email or other document, or uses bookmarks within a web browser (as well as activity from some web crawlers). Direct referrers represented more than 30% of activity (38,097 referrals). No other referrer represented more than 1% of total hits as a result of web crawler activity, but the results were nonetheless revealing: After direct referrals, the next three top referrers were Google (273 referrals, where users presumably access the site from a Google search page), the Stanford Center for Innovation in Global Health (126 referrals); and the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics (66 referrals). The latter two sites contain links to the curriculum. While not statistically significant, the number of Google referrals appeared to increase over time, from 10 in November 2011 to 82 in June 2012.
Open user data
The Open Evaluation data results included demographic data of course users; prior global health and global health ethics experience; and assessment of individual cases.
Demographic data for users from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012 (total N = 158, users do not have to answer all questions)
Mean age (SD), years
American Indian/Alaska Native
Black or African American
Degree Being Pursued
Primary Field or Vocation
Prior global health and global health ethics experience of users (total N = 156, users do not have to answer all questions)
Have been abroad before
Number of times abroad
More than 5
Have had prior global health ethics training
By times abroad
More than 5 times
Prior ethics training was related to short-term work
Curriculum will be only ethics training
Upcoming trip planned
To supplement and corroborate web statistics, we asked how users learned about the curriculum. Similar to web data, direct referrals from colleagues or via a user’s training program were most common (62%), followed by web search (28%) and web links (8%). Thirty-five users (24%) reported that their training program required them to take the curriculum.
Assessment of specific cases using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) or yes/no as indicated
Case (website sidebar order)
“Ethical issues were new to me”
“Gave me a strategy”
“Would recommend to a friend”
Agree or strongly agree (Average score)
Agree or strongly agree (Average score)
Developing Cultural Understanding
Ensuring Personal Safety
Exceeding Level of Training
Ensuring Sustainable and Appropriate Benefits
Addressing “Ancillary Benefits”
Telling the “Truth”
Selecting a Research Project
Understanding Informed Consent
The development and initial evaluation of http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org presented here is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to design and evaluate an online, widely accessible, introductory curriculum focused on ethical issues trainees might face in short-term training and service programs in global health. It was developed in direct response to increasing recognition of the ethical issues arising in such programs, emerging consensus around best practice guidelines, and a perceived need to translate these guidelines into an accessible format, especially for trainees or those with little prior global health experience. Our findings have important implications for ethics education related to short-term global health programs specifically and online ethics education more generally.
For instance, our data support the belief that more ethics training is needed for individuals traveling abroad for short-term global health programs. Less than one-third of users who have been abroad before report having had ethics training directly related to short-term work. Only after more than five trips abroad do a majority of individuals report having had ethics training. About one-quarter of users reported that this curriculum would be their only ethics training.
In addition, our data suggest that the curriculum is meeting its goal of wide accessibility and use. First, the curriculum is reaching a diverse range of fields, including medicine, public health, and nursing. Individuals of various nationalities are using the curriculum, and it is being disseminated via personal referral and through training programs, with a number of users locating the curriculum via web search. These observations encourage curriculum developers to consider ongoing direct dissemination of curricula to colleagues (perhaps including social media) and to use proven strategies to improve their curriculum’s ranking on Google and other search engines. Third, the curriculum content is generally well received based on responses to our Likert scale questions, with users generally perceiving that it offered both new content and new strategies for navigating ethical issues in this setting. Fourth, a number of programs appear to be requiring the curriculum before travel abroad, reinforcing the usefulness and perceived necessity of ethics education.
Despite this progress, work remains to meet our other curriculum goals. We were surprised, for example, at the average age of users (37 years) and that half were already practicing in their fields. While this suggests the curriculum may be effectively reaching those not in training programs, it might also suggest a need to better reach or target younger trainees. Similarly, although cases were well-received, a few cases (“Developing Cultural Understanding,” “Exceeding Level of Training,” and “Ensuring Personal Safety”) were perceived as less “new.” While these cases are arguably fundamental to global health training programs, future iterations of curriculum content might be able to cover these issues in more depth.
Comparing freely available online curricula for short-term global health ethics
Broad conceptual framework
Includes specific cases or scenarios
Certificate available for completion
Part of global health curriculum
Some modules in Spanish
Global Health Education Consortium (GHEC) Teaching Modules
· Self-navigation through PowerPoint
· Ethics integrated within "Working and Visiting in Low Resource Countries"
Unite for Sight Volunteer Ethics and Online Professionalism Course
· Self-navigation through text based modules
· Focuses on professional behavior abroad
Stanford Center for Innovation in Global Health and Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training”
· Self-navigation through cases
· Focuses on common scenarios
· Employs multiple choice questions and real-time feedback
University of British Columbia, “Ethics of International Engagement and Service-Learning Project”
· Users navigate through various menus
· Includes cases, pedagogy, and philosophical analysis
· Employs open-ended question and answers
Our curriculum, however, was designed to meet a particular niche in light of known advantages and disadvantages of online ethics education . For example, some qualitative evidence suggests that teaching complex ethics concepts online is difficult . We chose an online format for several reasons. First, our introductory curriculum does not teach complex concepts but instead introduces individuals with little or no prior training to a broad range of issues. Second, we wanted the introductory curriculum to be free and widely available, without requiring a login and with accessibility at all times. Third, an online site allows training programs and educators to tailor the curriculum for their particular needs, including within more comprehensive ethics curricula . Our use of real life cases, for example, fits well within current models of medical ethics education  and the high prevalence case- or problem-based methods for teaching ethics (e.g., at U.S. medical schools ). Fourth, because some trainees organize and participate in short-term programs outside their training institution, we wanted the curriculum to be available independent of specific institutions or programs.
Our findings must be interpreted in light of several limitations. First, web statistics can be difficult to interpret, likely overestimate the number of unique visitors, and cannot track whether or to what extent visitors complete site content. The open user group may be subject to ascertainment or sample selection bias. For example, open users searching for a curriculum online may be less likely to have had ethics training in the past and hence desire to search for it. This prevents us from making broad claims about the general population of individuals who go abroad for short-term global health training. The use of open user data – unlike standard pre- and post-test methods [46, 47] – might nevertheless better represent the real-world and intended use of online curricula, which is particularly important for the heterogeneous group of individuals who travel abroad for short-term global health training and service. Second, because our curriculum is introductory, it cannot address ethical issues specific to every situation, such as unique issues that might arise within specific medical specialties (e.g., pediatrics or obstetrics) or specific locations (e.g., global health programs which include underserved areas in one’s own country). Finally, although WEIGHT and CUGH include individuals and institutions in LMICs, thereby informing the process, content was determined and evaluated predominantly by individuals from high income countries. This suggests a need to develop and implement future curricula with greater input from those abroad, especially those in LMICs or the “global South.”
In summary, we developed a widely accessible, online introductory ethics curriculum for short-term training and service programs in global health. Our data suggest that a number of individuals go abroad without first receiving ethics training specifically related to short-term work. This could be related in part to the relative lack of available ethics education curricula until recently. Open user data suggest that our curriculum is reaching a diverse segment of its target audience. Future evaluations will focus on how well the curriculum increases knowledge of specific ethical issues arising in short-term global health training programs. In addition, a need exists to further develop and integrate this introductory curriculum into more comprehensive curricula; to demonstrate real behavioral changes among those going abroad; and to evaluate the effect such curricula have on the conduct of training programs on-the-ground at host sites. Our introductory curriculum is meant to introduce some of the ethical issues in short-term global health training, not replace more comprehensive courses or in-depth discussion of ethical concepts. This curriculum can therefore serve as a resource for global health training programs to prepare those involved for the ethical issues inherent in such work.
The authors thank Gene Richardson, MD, David Magnus, PhD, and John Crump, MB, ChB, DTM&H, for their contributions to draft versions of the curriculum. They additionally acknowledge Twisted Ladder Media™ for technical development of the online content.
This project was supported with funding from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation and a Greenwall Foundation Post-doctoral Fellowship in Bioethics and Health Policy (Dr. DeCamp). The funding sources had no role in the design or conduct of the research or in the writing, review or editing of the manuscript.
- Association of American Medical Colleges: Medical school graduation questionnaire. 2010, Available at: https://www.aamc.org/download/140716/data/2010_gq_all_schools.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2012
- Anderson KC, Slatnik MA, Pereira I, Cheung E, Xu K, Brewer TF: Are we there yet? Preparing Canadian medical students for global health electives. Acad Med. 2012, 87 (2): 206-209. 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31823e23d4.View ArticlePubMed
- Clem KJ, Green SM: Emergency medicine expeditions to the developing world: the Loma Linda University experience in Papua New Guinea. Acad Emerg Med. 1996, 3 (6): 624-633. 10.1111/j.1553-2712.1996.tb03473.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Schultz SH, Rousseau S: International health training in family practice residency programs. Fam Med. 1998, 30 (1): 29-33.PubMed
- Powell AC, Casey K, Liewehr DJ, Hayanga A, James TA, Cherr GS: Results of a national survey of surgical resident interest in international experience, electives, and volunteerism. J Am Coll Surg. 2009, 208 (2): 304-312. 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2008.10.025.View ArticlePubMed
- Anspacher M, Frintner MP, Denno D, Pak-Gorstein S, Olness K, Spector J, O’Callahan C: Global health education for pediatric residents: a national survey. Pediatrics. 2011, 128 (4): e959-e965. 10.1542/peds.2011-0129.View ArticlePubMed
- Bissonette R, Route C: The educational effect of clinical rotations in nonindustrialized countries. Fam Med. 1994, 26 (4): 226-231.PubMed
- Thompson MJ, Huntington MK, Hunt DD, Pinsky LE, Brodie JJ: Educational effects of international health electives on U.S. and Canadian medical students and residents: a literature review. Acad Med. 2003, 78 (3): 342-347. 10.1097/00001888-200303000-00023.View ArticlePubMed
- Wall LL, Arrowsmith SD, Lassey AT, Danso K: Humanitarian ventures or ‘fistula tourism?’: the ethical perils of pelvic surgery in the developing world. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006, 17 (6): 559-562. 10.1007/s00192-005-0056-8.View ArticlePubMed
- Drain PK, Holmes KK, Skeff KM, Hall TL, Gardner P: Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities. Acad Med. 2009, 84 (3): 320-325. 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181970a37.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Gladding S, Zink T, Howard C, Campagna A, Slusher T, John C: International electives at the University of Minnesota global pediatric residency program: opportunities for education in all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. Acad Pediatr. 2012, 12 (3): 245-250. 10.1016/j.acap.2012.02.009.View ArticlePubMed
- Gupta AR, Wells CK, Horwitz RI, Bia FJ, Barry M: The international health program: the fifteen-year experience with Yale University’s internal medicine residency program. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 61 (6): 1019-1023.PubMed
- Ramsey AH, Haq C, Gjerde CL, Rothenberg D: Career influence of an international health experience during medical school. Fam Med. 2004, 36 (6): 412-416.PubMed
- Scarlett HP, Nisbett RA, Stoler J, Bain BC, Bhatta MP, Castle T, Harbertson J, Brodine SK, Vermund SH: South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011, 85 (3): 397-404. 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0524.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bhat SB: Ethical coherency when medical students work abroad. Lancet. 2008, 372 (9644): 1133-1134. 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61461-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Shah S, Wu T: The medical student global health experience: professionalism and ethical implications. J Med Ethics. 2008, 34 (5): 375-378. 10.1136/jme.2006.019265.View ArticlePubMed
- Crump JA, Sugarman J: Ethical considerations for short-term experiences by trainees in global health. JAMA. 2008, 300 (12): 1456-1458. 10.1001/jama.300.12.1456.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ott BB, Olson RM: Ethical issues of medical missions: the clinicians’ view. HEC Forum. 2011, 23 (2): 105-113. 10.1007/s10730-011-9154-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Elit L, Hunt M, Redwood-Campbell L, Ranford J, Adelson N, Schwartz L: Ethical issues encountered by medical students during international health electives. Med Educ. 2011, 45 (7): 704-711. 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03936.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Provenzano AM, Graber LK, Elansary M, Khoshnood K, Rastegar A, Barry M: Short-term global health research projects by US medical students: ethical challenges for partnerships. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010, 83 (2): 211-214. 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0692.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Roberts M: A piece of my mind. Duffle bag medicine. JAMA. 2006, 295 (13): 1491-1492. 10.1001/jama.295.13.1491.View ArticlePubMed
- Wolfberg AJ: Volunteering overseas–lessons from surgical brigades. N Engl J Med. 2006, 354 (5): 443-445. 10.1056/NEJMp058220.View ArticlePubMed
- DeCamp M: Scrutinizing global short-term medical outreach. Hastings Cent Rep. 2007, 37 (6): 21-23. 10.1353/hcr.2007.0096.View ArticlePubMed
- Al-Samarrai T: Adrift in Africa: a US medical resident on an elective abroad. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011, 30 (3): 525-528. 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0842.View Article
- Huang AH, Rhodes WR: Hospital-based plastic surgery volunteerism: a resident’s international experience. Ann Plast Surg. 2012, 68 (4): 396-400. 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823f3cba.View ArticlePubMed
- Brook S, Robertson D, Makuwaza T, Hodges BD: Canadian residents teaching and learning psychiatry in Ethiopia: a grounded theory analysis focusing on their experiences. Acad Psychiatry. 2010, 34 (6): 433-437. 10.1176/appi.ap.34.6.433.View ArticlePubMed
- Abedini NC, Gruppen LD, Kolars JC, Kumagai AK: Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students. Acad Med. 2012, 87 (6): 820-828. 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31825396d8.View ArticlePubMed
- Petrosoniak A, McCarthy A, Varpio L: International health electives: thematic results of student and professional interviews. Med Educ. 2010, 44 (7): 683-689. 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03688.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Eneriz-Wiemer M, Nelson BD, Bruce J, Chamberlain LJ: Global health training in pediatric residency: a qualitative analysis of faculty director insights. Acad Pediatr. 2012, 12 (3): 238-244. 10.1016/j.acap.2012.02.005.View ArticlePubMed
- DeCamp M: Ethical review of global short-term medical volunteerism. HEC Forum. 2011, 23 (2): 91-103. 10.1007/s10730-011-9152-y.View ArticlePubMed
- Wilson JW, Merry SP, Franz WB: Rules of engagement: the principles of underserved global health volunteerism. Am J Med. 2012, 125 (6): 612-617. 10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.01.008.View ArticlePubMed
- Chase JA, Evert J: Global health training in graduate medical education: a guidebook. 2011, San Francisco: CFHR
- Reisch RA: International service learning programs: ethical issues and recommendations. Dev World Bioeth. 2011, 11 (2): 93-98. 10.1111/j.1471-8847.2011.00299.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Suchdev P, Ahrens K, Click E, Macklin L, Evangelista D, Graham E: A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips. Ambul Pediatr. 2007, 7 (4): 317-320. 10.1016/j.ambp.2007.04.003.View ArticlePubMed
- Dowell J, Merrylees N: Electives: isn’t it time for a change?. Med Educ. 2009, 43 (2): 121-126. 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03253.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Suchdev PS, Shah A, Derby KS, Hall L, Schubert C, Pak-Gorstein S, Howard C, Wagner S, Anspacher M, Staton D, O’Callahan C, Herran M, Arnold L, Steward CC, Kamat D, Batra M, Gutman J: A proposed model curriculum in global child health for pediatric residents. Acad Peds. 2012, 12 (3): 229-237. 10.1016/j.acap.2012.02.003.View Article
- Balandin S, Lincoln M, Sen R, Wilkins DP, Trembath D: Twelve tips for effective international clinical placements. Med Teach. 2007, 29 (9): 872-877. 10.1080/01421590701784364.View ArticlePubMed
- Kolars JC, Cahill K, Donkor P, Kaaya E, Lawson A, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK: Perspective: partnering for medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa: seeking the evidence for effective collaborations. Acad Med. 2012, 87 (2): 216-220. 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31823ede39.View ArticlePubMed
- Crump JA, Sugarman J, Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT): Ethics and best practice guidelines for training experiences in global health. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010, 83 (6): 1178-1182. 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0527.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Battat R, Seidman G, Chadi N, Chanda MY, Nehme J, Hulme J, Li A, Faridi N, Brewer TF: Global health competencies and approaches in medical education: a literature review. BMC Med Educ. 2010, 10: 94-10.1186/1472-6920-10-94.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Schonfeld TL: Reflections on teaching health care ethics on the web. Sci Eng Ethics. 2005, 11 (3): 481-494. 10.1007/s11948-005-0018-z.View ArticlePubMed
- Schonfeld TL, Dahlke EL, Longo JM: Pre-test/post-test results from an online ethics course: qualitative assessment of student learning. Teaching Philosophy. 2011, 34 (3): 273-290.View Article
- Lahey T: Perspective: a proposed medical school curriculum to help students recognize and resolve ethical issues of global health outreach work. Acad Med. 2012, 87 (2): 210-215. 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31823f3fb1.View ArticlePubMed
- Stirrat GM, Johnston C, Gillon R, Boyd K, Medical Education Working Group of Institute of Medical Ethics and associated signatories: Medical ethics and law for doctors of tomorrow: the 1998 consensus statement updated. J Med Ethics. 2010, 36 (1): 55-60. 10.1136/jme.2009.034660.View ArticlePubMed
- Liaison Committee on Medical Education: Part II. Medical school course details. 2011, Available at: https://www.aamc.org/initiatives/medaps/curriculumreports/264656/topicteachingandassessmentformats.html. Accessed 30 September 2012
- Chung CA, Alfred M: Design, development, and evaluation of an interactive simulator for engineering ethics education (SEEE). Sci Eng Ethics. 2009, 15 (2): 189-199. 10.1007/s11948-008-9109-y.View ArticlePubMed
- Palmer RC, Samson R, Triantis M, Mullan ID: Development and evaluation of a web-based breast cancer cultural competency course for primary healthcare providers. BMC Med Educ. 2011, 11: 59-10.1186/1472-6920-11-59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.